by

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 [ˈbaɪ]



WordReference Random House Learner's Dictionary of American English © 2019
by1 /baɪ/USA pronunciation   prep., adv., n., pl.  byes. 
prep. 
  1. near to or next to:a home by a lake.
  2. over the surface of, or using as a route or way of travel:She came by air.
  3. to and beyond a place;
    past: We drove by the church.
  4. to, into, or at: Come by my office.
  5. during:We drove by night.
  6. with the accompaniment of:[by the light of the silvery moon.]
  7. not later than;
    before: I'll be done by five o'clock.
  8. to the extent or amount of: He was taller by three inches.
  9. (of a part of the body) holding onto:grabbed me by the arm.
  10. from the evidence of: By his own account he was there.
  11. according to: a bad movie by any standards.
  12. through the work or action of:
    • [after a verb that is passive, and before the noun that caused the action of the verb]The booklet was issued by the government. This book was written by a team of experts.
    • [after a noun that refers to an action, and before the next noun that performs or does that action]a shooting by a police officer.
  13. through the means of:Do you want to pay by cash, check, or credit card?
  14. existing as a result of the creative power or invention of: a poem by Emily Dickinson.
  15. as a result of;
    on the basis of: we met by chance.
  16. in support of;
    for: to do well by one's children.
  17. (of things that come after each other) after;
    next after:put the puzzle together piece by piece.
  18. Mathematicsused before the second of two numbers to express the operations of multiplication or division, or to convey dimensions:
    • (in multiplication): Multiply 18 by 57 (= 18 x 57).
    • (in division):Divide 99 by 33 (= 99÷33)
    • (in measuring spaces): a room 10 feet by 12 feet (= a room 10 feet in one direction and 12 feet in another direction).
  19. in terms, groups, or amounts of:Apples are sold by the bushel.
  20. born of: She had a son by her first husband.

adv. 
  1. at hand;
    near: The school is close by.
  2. to and beyond a point;
    past: The car drove by.
  3. to or at someone's home, office, etc.: Won't you stop by later?
  4. past;
    over: in times gone by.

n. 
  1. bye1 .
Idioms
  1. Idiomsby and by, before long;
    soon, or eventually;
    in time:We'll understand it all, by and by.
  2. Idioms by and large, in general;
    on the whole:We have a good school, by and large.
  3. (all) by oneself, alone:She changed the flat tire all by herself.

    Compare by and with when referring to how an action is done. We use by to refer to a description of an action, often with the -ing form of the verb: I took the wheel off by jacking up the car and loosening the nuts. We use with before the tool we use to do the action: I took the wheel off with the jack handle and loosened the nuts with a wrench.

WordReference Random House Unabridged Dictionary of American English © 2019
by1  (bī),USA pronunciation prep., adv., adj., n., pl.  byes. 
prep. 
  1. near to or next to:a home by a lake.
  2. over the surface of, through the medium of, along, or using as a route:He came by the highway. She arrived by air.
  3. on, as a means of conveyance:They arrived by ship.
  4. to and beyond the vicinity of;
    past:He went by the church.
  5. within the extent or period of;
    during:by day; by night.
  6. not later than;
    at or before:I usually finish work by five o'clock.
  7. to the extent or amount of:The new tug is larger than the old one by a great deal. He's taller than his sister by three inches.
  8. from the opinion, evidence, or authority of:By his own account he was in Chicago at the time. I know him by sight.
  9. according to;
    in conformity with:This is a bad movie by any standards.
  10. with (something) at stake;
    on:to swear by all that is sacred.
  11. through the agency, efficacy, work, participation, or authority of:The book was published by Random House.
  12. from the hand, mind, invention, or creativity of:She read a poem by Emily Dickinson. The phonograph was invented by Thomas Edison.
  13. in consequence, as a result, or on the basis of:We met by chance. We won the game by forfeit.
  14. accompanied with or in the atmosphere of:Lovers walk by moonlight.
  15. in treatment or support of;
    for:He did well by his children.
  16. after;
    next after, as of the same items in a series:piece by piece; little by little.
  17. Mathematics(in multiplication) taken the number of times as that specified by the second number, or multiplier:Multiply 18 by 57.
  18. (in measuring shapes) having an adjoining side of, as a width relative to a length:a room 10 feet by 12 feet.
  19. Mathematics(in division) separated into the number of equal parts as that specified by the second number, or divisor:Divide 99 by 33.
  20. in terms or amounts of;
    in measuring units of:Apples are sold by the bushel. I'm paid by the week.
  21. begot or born of:Eve had two sons by Adam.
  22. (of quadrupeds) having as a sire:Equipoise II by Equipoise.
  23. Nautical, Naval Terms[Navig.](as used in the names of the 16 smallest points on the compass) one point toward the east, west, north, or south of N, NE, E, SE, S, SW, W, or NW, respectively:He sailed NE by N from Pago Pago.
  24. into, at, or to:Come by my office this afternoon.

adv. 
  1. near;
    in the immediate vicinity;
    at hand:The school is close by.
  2. to and beyond a point near something;
    past:The car drove by.
  3. aside;
    away:Put your work by for the moment. Over the years, she laid by enough money to retire.
  4. over;
    past:in times gone by.
  5. Idiomsby and by, in a short time;
    before long;
    presently:The clouds will disappear by and by.
  6. Idiomsby and large, in general;
    on the whole:By and large, there is much to be said for the new system.
  7. Gamesby me: 
    • (in bridge and other bidding card games) a declaration that the speaker is passing.
    • (in poker) a declaration that the speaker is checking:Is my pair of tens still high? By me.

adj. Also,  bye. 
  1. situated to one side:They came down a by passage.
  2. secondary, incidental:It was only a by comment.

n. 
  1. bye1.
  2. Idiomsby the by. See  bye 1 (def. 5).
  • bef. 900; Middle English; Old English ; cognate with Dutch bij, Old High German (German bei), Gothic bi. See be-
    • 11.See corresponding entry in Unabridged By, through, with indicate agency or means of getting something done or accomplished.
      By is regularly used to denote the agent (person or force) in passive constructions:It is done by many; destroyed by fire.It also indicates means:Send it by airmail.With denotes the instrument (usually consciously) employed by an agent:He cut it with the scissors.Through designates particularly immediate agency or instrumentality or reason or motive:through outside aid;
      to yield through fear;
      wounded through carelessness.

by2  (bī),USA pronunciation interj. 
  1. good-bye:By now, come again sometime!
Also,  bye. 
  • by shortening

by-, 
  • a combining form of  by 1:by-product;bystander;byway.
  • Also,  bye-. 

    Collins Concise English Dictionary © HarperCollins Publishers::

    by /baɪ/ prep
    1. used to indicate the agent after a passive verb: seeds eaten by the birds
    2. used to indicate the person responsible for a creative work: this song is by Schubert
    3. via; through: enter by the back door
    4. followed by a gerund to indicate a means used: he frightened her by hiding behind the door
    5. beside; next to; near: a tree by the house
    6. passing the position of; past: he drove by the old cottage
    7. not later than; before: return the books by Tuesday
    8. used to indicate extent, after a comparative: it is hotter by five degrees than it was yesterday
    9. (esp in oaths) invoking the name of: I swear by all the gods
    10. multiplied by: four by three equals twelve
    11. (in habitual sentences) during the passing of (esp in the phrases by day, by night)
    12. placed between measurements of the various dimensions of something: a plank fourteen inches by seven
    adv
    1. near: the house is close by
    2. away; aside: he put some money by each week for savings
    3. passing a point near something; past: he drove by
    4. Scot past; over and done with: that's a' by now
    5. Scot aside; behind one: you must put that by you
    n ( pl byes)
    1. a variant spelling of bye1
    Etymology: Old English bī; related to Gothic bi, Old High German , Sanskrit abhi to, towards



    by-, bye- prefix
    1. near: bystander
    2. secondary or incidental: by-effect, by-election, by-path, by-product
    Etymology: from by



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