WordReference Random House Learner's Dictionary of American English © 2017
cal•cu•lus /ˈkælkyələs/USA pronunciation   n. [uncountable]
  1. Mathematicsa branch of mathematics that calculates amounts that change constantly:Calculus can help you figure out how fast an object falls.
  2. Dentistrya hard, yellowish substance on teeth formed from dental plaque;

WordReference Random House Unabridged Dictionary of American English © 2017
cal•cu•lus  (kalkyə ləs),USA pronunciation n., pl.  -li (-lī′),USA pronunciation  -lus•es. 
  1. Mathematicsa method of calculation, esp. one of several highly systematic methods of treating problems by a special system of algebraic notations, as differential or integral calculus.
  2. Pathologya stone, or concretion, formed in the gallbladder, kidneys, or other parts of the body.
  3. DentistryAlso called  tartar. a hard, yellowish to brownish-black deposit on teeth formed largely through the mineralization of dead bacteria in dental plaques by the calcium salts in salivary secretions and subgingival transudates.
  4. calculation:the calculus of political appeal.
  • Latin: pebble, small stone (used in reckoning), equivalent. to calc- (stem of calx stone) + -ulus -ule
  • 1610–20

calculus, +n. 
  • calculation:the calculus of political appeal.

  • Collins Concise English Dictionary © HarperCollins Publishers::

    calculus /ˈkælkjʊləs/ n ( pl -luses)
    1. a branch of mathematics, developed independently by Newton and Leibniz. Both differential calculus and integral calculus are concerned with the effect on a function of an infinitesimal change in the independent variable as it tends to zero
    2. any mathematical system of calculation involving the use of symbols
    3. ( pl -li / -ˌlaɪ/) a stonelike concretion of minerals and salts found in ducts or hollow organs of the body
    Etymology: 17th Century: from Latin: pebble, stone used in reckoning, from calx small stone, counter

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