WordReference Random House Unabridged Dictionary of American English © 2015
century plant′, 
Plant Biologyany New World plant of the genus Agave, requiring many years to mature and blooming once before dying, esp. the widely cultivated species A. americana, having leaves in a basal rosette and a tall flower stalk.
Etymology:1755–65, American.

Collins Concise English Dictionary © HarperCollins Publishers::

century plant n
  1. an agave, Agave americana, native to tropical America but naturalized elsewhere, having very large spiny greyish leaves and greenish flowers on a tall fleshy stalk. It blooms only once in its life, after 10 to 30 years (formerly thought to flower after a century)
    Also called: American aloe

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