foul

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 /faʊl/

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WordReference Random House Learner's Dictionary of American English © 2016
foul /faʊl/USA pronunciation   adj. 
  1. offensive to the senses;
    disgusting:a foul smell from the river.
  2. marked by offensive matter or qualities:The city air had become foul with pollution.
  3. very dirty;
    filthy:foul rags.
  4. clogged with foreign matter:a foul pipeline.
  5. stormy;
    inclement:foul weather.
  6. angry;
    irritable:in a foul temper.
  7. morally offensive:the foul crime of murder.
  8. profane;
    obscene:foul language.
  9. Gamescontrary to the rules or practices, as in a sport or game.

adv. 
  1. in a foul manner.

n. [countable]
  1. Gamesa violation of the rules of a sport or game:disqualified for too many fouls.

v. 
  1. to make foul;
    defile;
    soil:[+ object]a river fouled with pollution.
  2. to clog;
    obstruct:[+ object]The valves were fouled with dirt.
  3. to (cause to) become entangled or caught, such as a rope: [no object]The ropes fouled in the wind.[+ object]The wind and tides fouled the ropes.
  4. to dishonor;
    disgrace:[+ object]Scandal fouled his good name.
  5. Sport[no object] to commit a foul in a sport or game.
  6. foul up, to make a mess;
    bungle: [no object]really fouled up during the interview.[+ up + object]really fouled up the interview.[+ object + up]had really fouled it up this time.
foul•ly, adv. 
foul•ness, n. [uncountable]

WordReference Random House Unabridged Dictionary of American English © 2016
foul  (foul),USA pronunciation adj.,  -er, -est, adv., n., v. 
adj. 
  1. grossly offensive to the senses;
    disgustingly loathsome;
    noisome:a foul smell.
  2. containing or characterized by offensive or noisome matter:foul air; foul stagnant water.
  3. filthy or dirty, as places, receptacles, clothes, etc.
  4. muddy, as a road.
  5. clogged or obstructed with foreign matter:a foul gas jet.
  6. unfavorable or stormy:foul weather.
  7. contrary, violent, or unfavorable, as the wind.
  8. grossly offensive in a moral sense.
  9. abominable, wicked, or vile, as deeds, crime, slander, etc.
  10. scurrilous, profane, or obscene;
    offensive:foul language.
  11. Gamescontrary to the rules or established usages, as of a sport or game;
    unfair:a foul blow.
  12. Sport[Baseball.]pertaining to a foul ball or a foul line.
  13. limited in freedom of movement by obstruction, entanglement, etc.:a foul anchor.
  14. abounding in errors or in marks of correction, as a printer's proof, manuscript, or the like.
  15. [Naut.]
    • Naval Terms(of the underwater portion of a hull) encrusted and impeded with barnacles, seaweed, etc.
    • Naval Terms(of a mooring place) involving inconveniences and dangers, as of colliding with vessels or other objects when swinging with the tide.
    • Naval Terms(of the bottom of a body of water) affording a poor hold for an anchor (opposed to clean).
  16. Scottish Terms[North Eng. and Scot.]not fair;
    ugly or unattractive.
  17. [Obs.]disfigured.

adv. 
  1. in a foul manner;
    vilely;
    unfairly.
  2. Sport[Baseball.]into foul territory;
    so as to be foul:It looked like a homer when he hit it, but it went foul.
  3. fall foul or  afoul of: 
    • Idiomsto collide with, as ships.
    • Idiomsto come into conflict with;
      quarrel.
    • Idiomsto make an attack;
      assault.
  4. Idiomsrun foul or  afoul of, to come into collision or controversy with:to run foul of the press.

n. 
  1. something that is foul.
  2. a collision or entanglement:a foul between two racing sculls.
  3. Gamesa violation of the rules of a sport or game:The referee called it a foul.
  4. Sport[Baseball.]See  foul ball. 

v.t. 
  1. to make foul;
    defile;
    soil.
  2. to clog or obstruct, as a chimney or the bore of a gun.
  3. to collide with.
  4. to cause to become entangled or caught, as a rope.
  5. to defile;
    dishonor;
    disgrace:His reputation had been fouled by unfounded accusations.
  6. Naval Terms[Naut.](of barnacles, seaweed, etc.) to cling to (a hull) so as to encumber.
  7. Sport[Baseball.]to hit (a pitched ball) foul (often fol. by off or away):He fouled off two curves before being struck out on a fastball.

v.i. 
  1. to become foul.
  2. Naval Terms[Naut.]to come into collision, as two boats.
  3. to become entangled or clogged:The rope fouled.
  4. Sportto make a foul play;
    give a foul blow.
  5. Sport Baseball. to hit a foul ball.
  6. Idiomsfoul one's nest. to dishonor one's own home, family, or the like.
  7. Sportfoul out: 
    • [Baseball.]to be put out by hitting a foul ball caught on the fly by a player on the opposing team.
    • [Basketball.]to be expelled from a game for having committed more fouls than is allowed.
  8. Informal Termsfoul up, to cause confusion or disorder;
    bungle;
    spoil.
foully, adv. 
  • bef. 900; (adjective, adjectival and noun, nominal) Middle English ful, foul, Old English fūl; cognate with Gothic fuls, Old Norse fūll, Old High German fūl; akin to Latin pūs pus, pūtēre to stink, Greek pýon pus; (adverb, adverbial) Middle English fule, foule, derivative of the adjective, adjectival; (verb, verbal) Middle English fulen, derivative of the adjective, adjectival
    • 1.See corresponding entry in Unabridged repulsive, repellent.
    • 2.See corresponding entry in Unabridged fetid, putrid, stinking.
    • 3.See corresponding entry in Unabridged unclean, polluted, sullied, soiled, stained, tainted, impure. See  dirty. 
    • 6.See corresponding entry in Unabridged rainy, tempestuous.
    • 7.See corresponding entry in Unabridged adverse.
    • 9.See corresponding entry in Unabridged base, shameful, infamous.
    • 10.See corresponding entry in Unabridged smutty, vulgar, coarse, low.
    • 26.See corresponding entry in Unabridged sully, stain, dirty, besmirch, taint, pollute.
    • 30.See corresponding entry in Unabridged shame.
    • 1.See corresponding entry in Unabridged pleasant.
    • 3, 26.See corresponding entry in Unabridged clean.
    • 5, 6.See corresponding entry in Unabridged clear.


Collins Concise English Dictionary © HarperCollins Publishers::

foul /faʊl/ adj
  1. offensive to the senses; revolting
  2. offensive in odour; stinking
  3. charged with or full of dirt or offensive matter; filthy
  4. (of food) putrid; rotten
  5. morally or spiritually offensive; wicked; vile
  6. obscene; vulgar: foul language
  7. (esp of weather) unpleasant or adverse
  8. blocked or obstructed with dirt or foreign matter: a foul drain
  9. (of the bottom of a vessel) covered with barnacles and other growth that slow forward motion
  10. informal unsatisfactory or uninteresting; bad: a foul book
n
  1. a violation of the rules
  2. (as modifier): a foul shot, a foul blow
  3. an entanglement or collision, esp in sailing or fishing
vb
  1. to make or become dirty or polluted
  2. to become or cause to become entangled or snarled
  3. (transitive) to disgrace or dishonour
  4. to become or cause to become clogged or choked
  5. (transitive) (of underwater growth) to cling to (the bottom of a vessel) so as to slow its motion
  6. (transitive) to commit a foul against (an opponent)
  7. (intransitive) to infringe the rules
  8. to collide with (a boat, etc)
adv
  1. in a foul or unfair manner
  2. fall foul ofto come into conflict with
  3. to come into collision with
Etymology: Old English fūl; related to Old Norse fūll, Gothic fūls smelling offensively, Latin pūs pus, Greek puol pus

ˈfoully adv



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