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WordReference Random House Learner's Dictionary of American English © 2016
rough /rʌf/USA pronunciation
adj., -er, -est, n., adv., v. WordReference Random House Unabridged Dictionary of American English © 2016
- having a coarse or uneven surface;
not smooth:rough, worn skin.
- steep or uneven and covered with high grass, etc.; wild:rough country.
- acting with or marked by violence:Hockey is a rough sport.
- lacking in gentleness, care, or consideration:rough handling.
- crude, rude, or lacking culture:a rough peasant.
- difficult or unpleasant:a rough year for consumers.
- dangerous because of violence or crime:He came from a rough neighborhood.
- not perfected; unpolished:a rough draft.
not exact:a rough estimate.
- something rough, esp. ground.
- Sportpart of a golf course bordering the fairway, on which the grass, weeds, etc., are not trimmed:The ball landed in the rough.
- anything in its unfinished or early form, as a drawing:drawn in the rough.
- in a rough manner; roughly:I'm warning you, that mob plays rough.
- rough up, to treat (someone) with physical violence: [~ + up + object]The muggers roughed up their victim.[~ + object + up]They always rough their victims up.
- to make or shape roughly or in outline: [~ + in + object]The designers roughed in the placement of the windows.[~ + out + object]She roughed out a few plans.
rough•ness, n. [uncountable]
- Idiomsrough it, [Informal.]to live without comforts or conveniences:roughed it in the bush for two years.
(ruf ), adj., -er, -est, n., adv., v.
- having a coarse or uneven surface, as from projections, irregularities, or breaks;
not smooth:rough, red hands; a rough road.
- shaggy or coarse:a dog with a rough coat.
- (of an uninhabited region or large land area) steep or uneven and covered with high grass, brush, trees, stones, etc.:to hunt over rough country.
- acting with or characterized by violence:Boxing is a rough sport.
- characterized by unnecessary violence or infractions of the rules:It was a rough prize fight.
- violently disturbed or agitated; turbulent, as water or the air:a rough sea.
- having a violently irregular motion;
uncomfortably or dangerously uneven:The plane had a rough flight in the storm.
- stormy or tempestuous, as wind or weather.
- sharp or harsh:a rough temper.
- unmannerly or rude:his rough and churlish manner; They exchanged rough words.
- disorderly or riotous:a rough mob.
- difficult or unpleasant:to have a rough time of it.
- harsh to the ear; grating or jarring, as sounds.
- harsh to the taste;
sharp or astringent:a rough wine.
- coarse, as food.
- lacking culture or refinement:a rough, countrified manner.
- without refinements, luxuries, or ordinary comforts or conveniences:rough camping.
- requiring exertion or strength rather than intelligence or skill:rough manual labor.
- not elaborated, perfected, or corrected; unpolished, as language, verse, or style:a rough draft.
- made or done without any attempt at exactness, completeness, or thoroughness;
approximate or tentative:a rough guess.
- crude, unwrought, nonprocessed, or unprepared:rough rice.
- Phonetics[Phonet.]uttered with aspiration; having the sound of h;
- something that is rough, esp. rough ground.
- Sport[Golf.]any part of the course bordering the fairway on which the grass, weeds, etc., are not trimmed.
- the unpleasant or difficult part of anything.
- anything in its crude or preliminary form, as a drawing.
- British Terms[Chiefly Brit.]a rowdy;
- in the rough, in a rough, crude, or unfinished state:The country has an exciting potential, but civilization there is still in the rough.
- in a rough manner;
- to make rough;
- to give a beating to, manhandle, or subject to physical violence (often fol. by up):The mob roughed up the speaker.
- to subject to some rough, preliminary process of working or preparation (often fol. by down, off, or out):to rough off boards.
- to sketch roughly or in outline (often fol. by in or out):to rough out a diagram; to rough in the conversation of a novel.
- Sport[Sports.]to subject (a player on the opposing team) to unnecessary physical abuse, as in blocking or tackling:The team was penalized 15 yards for roughing the kicker.
- to become rough, as a surface.
- to behave roughly.
- rough it, to live without the customary comforts or conveniences; endure rugged conditions:We really roughed it on our fishing trip.
1 . irregular, jagged, bumpy, craggy. 2 . hairy, bristly. 13 . noisy, cacophonous, raucous. 16 . impolite, uncivil, unpolished, rude.
1 . smooth, even, regular.
Middle English (adjective, adjectival and noun, nominal);
Old English rūh (adjective, adjectival);
cognate with Dutch ruig, German rauh
Collins Concise English Dictionary © HarperCollins Publishers::
rough /rʌf/ adj
- (of a surface) not smooth; uneven or irregular
- (of ground) covered with scrub, boulders, etc
- denoting or taking place on uncultivated ground: rough grazing, rough shooting
- shaggy or hairy
- turbulent; agitated: a rough sea
- (of the performance or motion of something) uneven; irregular: a rough engine
- (of behaviour or character) rude, coarse, ill mannered, inconsiderate, or violent
- harsh or sharp: rough words
- informal severe or unpleasant: a rough lesson
- (of work, a task, etc) requiring physical rather than mental effort
- informal ill or physically upset: he felt rough after an evening of heavy drinking
- unfair or unjust: rough luck
- harsh or grating to the ear
- without refinement, luxury, etc
- not polished or perfected in any detail; rudimentary; not elaborate: rough workmanship, rough justice
- not prepared or dressed: rough gemstones
- (of a guess, estimate, etc) approximate
- having the sound of h; aspirated
- rough on ⇒ informal chiefly Brit severe towards
- unfortunate for (a person)
- the rough side of one's tongue ⇒ harsh words; a reprimand, rebuke, or verbal attack
- rough ground
- a sketch or preliminary piece of artwork
- an unfinished or crude state (esp in the phrase in the rough)
- the rough ⇒ the part of the course bordering the fairways where the grass is untrimmed
- informal a rough or violent person; thug
- the unpleasant side of something (esp in the phrase take the rough with the smooth)
- in a rough manner; roughly
- sleep rough ⇒ to spend the night in the open; be without a home or without shelter
See also rough upEtymology: Old English rūh; related to Old Norse ruksa, Middle Dutch rūge, rūwe, German rauhˈroughness n
- (transitive) to make rough; roughen
- (tr; followed by out, in, etc) to prepare (a sketch, report, piece of work, etc) in preliminary form
- rough it ⇒ informal to live without the usual comforts or conveniences of life
'rough' also found in these entries: