For the verb: "to understand"

Simple Past: understood
Past Participle: understood

WordReference Random House Learner's Dictionary of American English © 2017
un•der•stand /ˌʌndɚˈstænd/USA pronunciation   v. [not: be + ~ -ing], -stood, -stand•ing. 
  1. to see or perceive the meaning of;
    comprehend: [+ object]to understand a poem.[+ (that) clause]doesn't understand that he's not welcome.[no object]Don't say a word to anyone, understand?
  2. to be familiar with;
    have a thorough knowledge of: [+ object]to understand literature; She understands businesspeople.[no object]She understands about businesspeople.
  3. to interpret or comprehend in a specified way: [+ object + as + object]understood the suggestion as a complaint.[+ object + to + verb]We understood you to mean you agree.
  4. to grasp the significance or importance of: [+ object]He doesn't understand responsibility.[no object]A child doesn't understand about death.
  5. to learn or hear:[+ (that) clause]I understand that you were ill.
  6. to regard as agreed or settled;
    assume:[+ (that) clause]We understand that you will repay this loan.
  7. to infer (something not stated):[+ object]In sentences that are commands, like Run!, the subject you is understood.
  8. to accept something tolerantly, or with forgiveness or sympathy:[no object]If you can't come to the funeral, I will understand.
un•der•stand•a•ble, adj.: My French was barely understandable.[It + be + ~ + that clause]It's understandable that you are upset.
un•der•stand•a•bly, adv. See -stan-.

WordReference Random House Unabridged Dictionary of American English © 2017
un•der•stand  (un′dər stand),USA pronunciation v.,  -stood, -stand•ing. 
  1. to perceive the meaning of;
    grasp the idea of;
    comprehend:to understand Spanish; I didn't understand your question.
  2. to be thoroughly familiar with;
    apprehend clearly the character, nature, or subtleties of:to understand a trade.
  3. to assign a meaning to;
    interpret:He understood her suggestion as a complaint.
  4. to grasp the significance, implications, or importance of:He does not understand responsibility.
  5. to regard as firmly communicated;
    take as agreed or settled:I understand that you will repay this loan in 30 days.
  6. to learn or hear:I understand that you are going out of town.
  7. to accept as true;
    believe:I understand that you are trying to be truthful, but you are wrong.
  8. to construe in a particular way:You are to understand the phrase literally.
  9. to supply mentally (something that is not expressed).

  1. to perceive what is meant;
    grasp the information conveyed:She told them about it in simple words, hoping they would understand.
  2. to accept tolerantly or sympathetically:If you can't do it, I'll understand.
  3. to have knowledge or background, as on a particular subject:He understands about boats.
  4. to have a systematic interpretation or rationale, as in a field or area of knowledge:He can repeat every rule in the book, but he just doesn't understand.
  • bef. 900; Middle English understanden, understonden, Old English understondan; cognate with Dutch onderstaan. See under-, stand
    • 1.See corresponding entry in Unabridged See  know 1.

Collins Concise English Dictionary © HarperCollins Publishers::

understand /ˌʌndəˈstænd/ vb ( -stands, -standing, -stood)
  1. (may take a clause as object) to know and comprehend the nature or meaning of: I understand you, I understand what you mean
  2. (may take a clause as object) to realize or grasp (something): he understands your position
  3. (tr; may take a clause as object) to assume, infer, or believe: I understand you are thinking of marrying
  4. (transitive) to know how to translate or read: can you understand Spanish?
  5. (tr; may take a clause as object; often passive) to accept as a condition or proviso: it is understood that children must be kept quiet
  6. (transitive) to be sympathetic to or compatible with: we understand each other
Etymology: Old English understandan; related to Old Frisian understonda, Middle High German understān step under; see under, stand

ˌunderˈstandable adj ˌunderˈstandably adv

'understand' also found in these entries:
Collocations: understand your [feelings, wishes, concern, reluctance], understand your [point, question, frustration], understand the [issue, problem, material], more...

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